White Paper

Child Labor and Slavery in Cocoa Production: National Government of Ghana and the Ivory Coast


This report aims to look at the prevalence of child labor and slavery in the cocoa industry specifically in Ghana and the Ivory Coast and the many responses that have been taken in order to combat it.  The paper starts out by reviewing the context in which both child labor and slavery exists in the two countries as well as the working conditions that employees on these farms are faced with in each instance. The report then goes on to analyze the complexity that exists in the supply chain which complicates who is to blame in regards to the inequalities that exist despite a small number of key players in chocolate production.

 

Due to the large number of actors in the supply chain there are variety of responses and actions from different organizations. Multilateral organizations such as the United Nations and the International Cocoa Organization work to represent both shareholders and stakeholders in implementing strategies and initiatives to combat the labor problems. The report then goes on to discuss the multi stakeholder initiatives that have come about as a result of the multilateral organizations and the programs that they are running in both Ghana and the Ivory Coast, of which NGO’s play a significant role.  The report also look at what chocolate companies have been doing and how they are using education and training as a way to reduce child and slave labor. Finally the report analyzes how both Ghana and the Ivory Coast governments have been utilizing the support and what they are yet to adopt and improve on.

The paper concludes with recommendations with what both national governments can do to further their approach in eliminating child labor and slavery. If the governments are to have any impact they are going to have to adopt more of the global norms into local law such as trafficking and increase the severity of punishment if found guilty. The two governments also need to have stronger control and oversight of the cocoa supply chain while in the domestic segment of the supply chain and be held accountable for their actions.

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